The law is a body of law that governs conduct and is imposed by governments and other organizations on private citizens, with its exact definition somewhat of a question of longstanding debate. It can be defined as a body of knowledge, law, or moral obligation. It was widely regarded as an independent science and the art of legal reasoning. The courts generally supervise the implementation of the law through juries of twelve people selected by the judge.
Justice is the foundation of all political societies; without justice people will not respect the rights of other individuals and societies will have no social order. Justice promotes equal rights and opportunities, and is seen as the pillar of society. Without justice in our society, it is impossible to maintain a civilized society, and the rule of law cannot be maintained among diverse cultures and traditions.
There are two distinct types of justice: objective and subjective. Objective justice refers to what is just according to a given standard, such as impartiality, reciprocity, and equality. Subjective justice is the opposite of objective. It refers to what goes against the interests of one person or society at the expense of another. Justice between two opposite values is considered to be just, but when one of the values is unjustifiable then the other will also be just, or vice versa.
The established standards of morality are derived from the dictates of religion, tradition, and culture. When laws are based on these established standards of morality, it is deemed just for everyone. Through the institution of marriage, it is the societal responsibility of each individual to ensure that the other person’s interest is protected, and that the law takes the burden of defending the weaker member of the pair. When laws are established to ensure basic fairness and equity in the distribution of societal goods and services such as health, education, and employment, it is seen as just for the individuals themselves, but no one else.
Just as it is easy to establish morality through religion, it is equally easy to establish justice. Through the establishment of laws that promote social justice, the weaker members of a society can have their day in court to have their rights recognized. However, establishing justice through law does not erase the fact that there may be things that are morally wrong. In fact, it only prevents the immoral from taking place while allowing the morally right to exist. For example, stealing is morally wrong, but a law against stealing would not prevent people from stealing. Therefore, although a law may legally establish justice against theft, the morality of theft would still exist.
According toethical consequentialists, it is important that we act in accordance with what is best for humankind, rather than what is strictly right. This means that if something is morally wrong then it is not the end of the world, and if something is the highest good, then it is not the greatest good for the humankind. Utilitarians would support this position because it would prevent them from being slaves to society’s ever-changing morality. Utilarians believe that the greatest good for humanity exists when the individual controls themselves rather than those powers that be.