What Is Law?


Law is a system of rules that a society or government develops in order to deal with crime, business agreements and social relationships. It also refers to the people who work in this system, such as a judge or an attorney.

The core subjects of law are broadly divided into criminal and civil law, though they tend to overlap and intertwine in practice. Law is often seen as the expression of a country’s political ideology and values, but it can also be influenced by the broader culture of a community, such as in terms of a religion’s religious laws or a region’s cultural history.

In the modern sense of the term, law includes both written and unwritten rules that guide behaviour, from a country’s constitutional principles to its courtroom procedure. Historically, the concept of law has included both a body of written legal rules (such as the Jewish Halakha or Islamic Shari’a) and a more informal legal tradition developed through interpretations and precedent (such as the Jewish Talmud and Muslim Hadith).

An important part of the study of law is analysing the way it works, which involves understanding how different parts of the legal process function together. This is particularly important in areas such as criminal law, which involves a complex chain of events that can be difficult to trace, and family law, which concerns delicate issues like divorce or the custody of children.

Other areas of law involve the rules that courts must follow in a trial or hearing, and the types of evidence that may be used. A key area is the right to a fair trial, which is protected by a variety of laws and processes, including the constitutional right to appeal and the right to a public record of proceedings.

Another major area of law is the relationship between the state and its citizens. This covers the rights of citizens to property, contracts and justice, as well as the obligations and duties of the state in a democracy. In many countries, the power to create and enforce laws is vested in a single entity called a nation-state, and this often leads to disputes over who has the right to make or break the law.

Other important areas of law include tax law, which regulates the amount of taxes a company or individual must pay, and banking and financial regulation. Space law is a newer subject, covering the relations of nations in orbit and outer space, whilst copyright and patent law protect creative work. Criminal law covers the responsibilities of those who carry out crimes and the powers of police, courts and attorneys. The law is also informed by a broad range of academic fields, such as philosophy, religion and sociology. Max Weber has reshaped thinking on the role of law in modern society.

Democracy in Indonesia

democracy in indonesia

The Indonesian political system is a decentralized republic characterized by popular sovereignty manifested in parliamentary and presidential elections every five years. This version of democracy is generally regarded as free and fair, but it is not immune from the problems of corruption and nepotism that plague many countries in Southeast Asia. It is also susceptible to money-politics through which power or positions can be bought, especially among the poorer segments of society, a strategy that was very common during the Suharto era.

A number of political analysts have argued that Indonesia is moving away from a liberal, idealistic conception of democracy to one that is more “instrumental.” While a utilitarian view of elections might privilege bureaucratic efficiency over citizens’ rights, it may offer a better solution for the country’s problems than reverting back to the indirect system used under Suharto in 1998. Indirect elections were a major contributing factor to the devastating ethnic riots of that era, with distrust of local legislatures and disputed results of regional head races fueling the violence.

But a return to indirect regional elections would not solve the problem of Indonesia’s fractious and dysfunctional governance. In fact, it could actually exacerbate them. Government and party officials have cited several reasons for proposing such a move. First, they have cited research that suggests voters in less-developed regions lack the capacity to make responsible electoral choices. They have also cited the risk of ethnic polarization and violent clashes as a reason for ending direct elections in areas with a history of conflict.

The problem with these concerns is that they overlook the fundamental lesson of democratization in Indonesia: solving the country’s societal and political problems requires more democracy, not less. Moreover, they ignore the evidence that Indonesian voters can distinguish between candidates based on policy outcomes and punish non-performing politicians by voting them out of office.

Another concern is that the instrumentalist model of democracy tends to ignore other important dimensions of democracy, including civil rights, egalitarianism, and judicial independence. This approach can lead to a disconnect between the democratic scores produced by international rating agencies and surveys of public satisfaction with government performance conducted by domestic survey organizations.

In short, while Indonesia’s democracy scores are good, its democratic institutions are not robust enough to withstand a full assault from human rights and other advocacy groups. The country needs to further improve its institutional strength if it is to fully realize the potential benefits of democracy for its citizens.

Do the people have the right to organize in different competitive political parties or other groupings of their choice, and are they free from undue obstacles to the formation of such groups?

Advantages and Disadvantages of Democracy

Democracy is a political system that allows people to govern themselves, either directly or through representatives they choose. It is the oldest and most established form of government, and is widely regarded as one of the best systems to manage human affairs in terms of prosperity, peace, and individual freedoms. However, it is not without its challenges.

In a democracy, every person has the right to pursue their dreams by shaping society in a way that meets their expectations. In many cases, this idea runs counter to what other people want, but the democratic structure encourages a balance of ideas in order to make decisions that are beneficial for the whole community.

It is important for people to stay informed about what is happening and what is being decided “in the name of the people”. They should also make their opinions known – whether that be by making comments to their politicians, writing letters to the media or joining groups working on particular issues. The more informed voters are, the more likely they are to get the policies they want.

The main advantage of a democracy is that the governing process is more transparent. The idea behind democracy is that the majority rules, and in order to do that, all votes must be counted. This means that there is no hiding of what is being decided, and therefore no corruption can take place.

Another advantage is that democracies grow faster economically than other forms of government. This is because democracy has a tendency to bring people together, and in doing so, reduces exploitation through differences in social and economic status. People are able to speak their minds, regardless of wealth or property ownership, sex, race, religion or ethnicity.

A disadvantage of democracy is that it can sometimes be difficult to make changes with this governing method because it takes a long time to complete a legislative process. This is because each decision made is up for review by the people, and can be reversed with the next election. In some situations, this can lead to a lack of cooperation between representatives and creates partisan politics.

Democracy is a great system for humans because it allows people to form a sense of pride and loyalty in their nation. Even if they disagree with the policy of their country, they have the common ground of being a citizen and thus feel a sense of patriotism. This is a powerful force that can prevent countries from descending into conflict. This is why democracy should be cherished and protected. It may not always be perfect, but it is the most effective system for the good of mankind.

Philanthropy and Democracy in America

democracy in america

When Alexis de Tocqueville arrived in the US in 1831, he was eager to discover whether America’s democracy really put power under people’s control. What he saw was not the transparent, accountable, and efficient system that most Americans believed at the time. Instead, he witnessed what he called “American politics as meticulously staged scenes in Hollywood movies.” Political infighting and money politics distracted politicians from giving public commitments, and vetocracy made quality governance impossible.

The current crisis of American democracy requires a change in strategy. To save it, the US must stop promoting its self-styled model of democracy as a path for other countries to follow. Instead, it must invest in a positive vision of democracy that includes complex identities and addresses Americans’ most pressing needs. The effort will require more than focus groups and strategic communications. It must include art, literary, and cultural endeavors that shape a concrete vision of what democracy looks like, feels like, and can be. It must be grounded in philosophy and policy ideas and made real through action.

To do so, the pro-democracy community must address the underlying causes of its decline. It must recognize that the authoritarian movement is cultivating a narrative of America that pits white, Christian men and women against minorities and women. It must also recognize that this narrative is generating a sense of status loss and dignity deficit in many Americans. It is critical to reach these groups with messages that offer them hope for a better future rather than just threatening to write them off.

As the authoritarian movement grows, it is threatening the moral and legal nets that are holding democracy up. The latter will erode even further if antidemocratic behavior is not confronted with firmer, clearer laws and norms that define what is, and what is not, acceptable in a democracy. To stop America from drowning, philanthropists need to step up their investments in efforts to create and spread a new positive democratic vision of the country that incorporates all its complex, intersecting identities.

To do so, they must recognize that the alienating politics of the left—deepening polarization, static identities, and competitive victimhood—have opened the door to antidemocratic forces. To fend off the impending catastrophe, they must cultivate a positive vision that can be embraced by all Americans. This will require a multi-faceted effort to bring art, literature, and culture to bear while engaging in communication with advertisers and other media monopolies. It will require a broad coalition of players to work together to develop strategies that are based on a shared, positive vision of the future and that build on Americans’ most urgent needs. It will require the development of images that capture the spirit of what a healthy and inclusive democracy looks and feels like, and it will need to be rooted in philosophy and policy ideas. It will be a daunting task, but one that must be undertaken quickly if the US is to avoid a sudden and dramatic collapse of its democracy.

The Best Distraction Blocker Apps to Help You Stay Focused on Your Tasks

Freedom is a concept that people often associate with liberty, independence, autonomy, and equality. However, this is only one part of the picture: freedom can also be defined as a set of constraints that are necessary for self-fulfillment. For instance, a person can have the freedom to express their opinions and ideas but this freedom may be limited by laws against murder or burglary.

Ultimately, the idea of freedom is that an individual has the power to control their own actions and decisions in a way that is consistent with their values. The more freedom that a person has, the more they will be able to fulfill their own potential and make the world a better place.

The most important form of freedom is the ability to choose. While it would be great if we could all decide what we want to do and how we want to live, the reality is that there are always constraints that limit our choices. These are either internal or external. The internal limitations can range from lack of knowledge to physical or cultural barriers. External limitations include social norms, moral principles, and legal restrictions on certain activities.

If you want to focus on work, it can be hard to resist the pull of distractions. If you are prone to checking Facebook or browsing YouTube, a distraction blocker can help you stay focused on your tasks. The best distraction blocking apps are easy to use, customizable, and offer a variety of features. These apps are ideal for anyone who needs to get more done in less time or is struggling with digital addictions.

A few of the most popular apps for tackling distracting websites and apps are Freedom, Cold Turkey Blocker, and Focus. These apps combine productivity tools with an internet browser and allow you to customize your blocks. You can even schedule or recurring blocks to make it easier to break bad habits.

The interface of the apps is easy to use and you can block both websites and mobile applications. You can block notifications and access to your most addictive sites from a computer, laptop, or smartphone. The blocks will remain active across all of your devices so the same addictive app on your computer won’t be able to steal your attention from your phone or tablet.

To use the app, you need to sign up for a free account and follow the prompts to download and install it on your computer or mobile device. Once it’s installed, you can start a session from the dashboard by selecting the appropriate options. The app will then start a timer and block access to the distracting sites or apps you selected. There are yearly and monthly plans available, with the yearly plan offering 7 free sessions to get you started.

What Is Law?


Law is the set of rules that a society or government recognizes as binding and enforceable. Its precise definition is a topic of long-standing debate. Some scholars define law as a system of norms and standards for human behavior that are enforceable by a controlling authority. Others use the term to refer to the specific rules imposed by a legislature or court in a particular case. Still other scholars use the term to refer to the body of laws that are passed by a parliament or legislative assembly. The precise nature of these laws varies widely from country to country, reflecting the different historical and social circumstances under which they are made.

The term law may also be used to refer to the rules of a particular court or tribunal, such as the arraignment procedure in which accused criminals are brought before a judge and told what charges they face. These types of laws are usually called statutory law or common law.

Statutory law is the body of laws enacted by a legislature, and common law is a legal system that relies on the articulation of judicial decisions to develop and establish legal principles. These legal principles can be changed by legislation. Judicial precedent, or stare decisis, is a principle that courts build upon the holdings of other judges in previous cases.

A court can decide whether or not to enforce a law, or to change a ruling made by another judge. If a judge decides that a law is not being properly followed or is unjust, he or she may order the other court to change its decision or to apply a different legal principle in the future. These kinds of changes are often referred to as legal reform.

The rules of a particular jurisdiction that determine the rights and obligations of its citizens and regulate business activities. These are typically formulated by governments and can include laws governing the establishment of businesses, employment, taxation, and privacy.

Generally speaking, the concept of the rule of law is that all individuals and institutions are subject to laws that are freely published, equally enforced, independently adjudicated, and in conformity with international standards for human rights, civil liberties, and good governance. This requires adherence to the principles of supremacy of law, equality before the law, separation of powers, participation in decision-making, and legal transparency.

The study of law encompasses many specialized fields of study, including criminal law, constitutional law, property law, and family law. A more comprehensive overview of the scope of law can be found in articles on the legal profession, legal education, and legal ethics. The law’s relationship to political structures and systems is delineated in articles on constitution; ideology; and political party. The societal importance of law is covered in articles on human rights; land reform; and social service. The law is an important part of the world’s social fabric, a field that continues to grow and evolve.

Democracy in Indonesia

democracy in indonesia

Since the overthrow of Suharto’s dictatorship in 1998, Indonesia has forged ahead toward a functional democracy, with a strong economy and a largely free press. Yet challenges persist in the nation of 260 million, including poverty that remains high, uneven access to education and health care, and the activities of radical sectarian elements.

Indonesia’s first president, Soekarno, was the icon of independence from colonial rule, but after he died, his successors struggled to guide a new nation riven by traumas and competing political forces. They fought over who should lead, and as a result, the nation lost direction in the chaotic middle years of the 1960s.

The country has since made significant gains, notably cutting poverty rates in half and ranking tenth in the world in per-capita GDP. But an entrenched elite, including those who benefited from the Suharto era and have ties to the military, continues to exert undue influence over politics and public policy.

Joko Widodo of the PDI-P won presidential and legislative elections in April 2019, winning 55.5 percent of the vote to defeat former general Prabowo Subianto of the Great Indonesia Movement Party (Gerindra). The election was largely considered free and fair by international monitors, and there were no reports of widespread fraud or vote-rigging. The new legislature, the House of Representatives (DPR), consists of 575 members elected in 34 multi-member districts, and they serve five-year terms.

Civil liberties remain limited by corruption and an overly restrictive state bureaucracy, and freedom of expression is constrained by broad and vague laws limiting assembly and association. Police reportedly engage in arbitrary arrests and detentions, and there are no effective safeguards against the use of coerced confessions in criminal cases. Local governments sometimes enact ordinances based on Islamic law that are unconstitutional and contradict Indonesia’s international human rights commitments.

An active private sector exists, though government policies can stifle innovation. Property rights are eroded by state appropriation and licensing of communally owned land to companies, which especially affects indigenous communities. Inequality in education and access to health care also persists, along with endemic corruption.

Media freedom is relatively robust, although journalists face harassment and violence while covering sensitive topics, particularly in Papua and West Papua. Foreign journalists seeking to enter these regions report bureaucratic obstacles and a climate of self-censorship. A few online news sites have been shuttered by the government, and some journalists have been intimidated or even killed.

What is Democracy?


Democracy is the idea that decisions about the public good should be based on the freely expressed will of people. This means that all citizens are able to participate in politics and can hold decision-makers to account. It also implies that women and men are equally entitled to human rights and are free from discrimination. Democracy requires a high degree of civil liberties, which is reflected in the freedoms of speech and assembly, privacy and the right to protest.

There are many different forms of democracy in the world. Some are presidential, some parliamentary, some use proportional voting and others don’t. These differences are a reflection of the fact that no system is perfect and that the idea behind a democracy is more important than the particular form it takes in practice.

It is important to remember that no one is born a democratic citizen or a democracy. Both are processes that develop over a lifetime. People need to learn about democracy and develop the habits of a democratic citizen, and nations must make the necessary investments in democracy for it to flourish.

Teachers can begin by distributing the Student Backgrounder – What is democracy? (Appendix B) and the Frayer model of democracy (Appendix C). Divide the class into small groups and assign each group a question. Give the students time to discuss their answers. It might be useful to select a note taker for each group, so that the big ideas that emerge can be recorded and posted in a visible place.

After the small groups have finished discussing their questions, encourage them to combine their work into a single definition of what they consider to be democracy. They can then present their definitions to the rest of the class. This could be done by using an online voting tool or simply a show of hands. The class can then vote on which definition they think is the best and arrive at a consensus.

Defining what is meant by democracy is not easy because it involves finding a way to arbitrate between conflicting social forces. In some instances, the demand for economic modernization collides with the desire to preserve traditions and culture. In other cases, the demands for progress clash with the need to respect and value the uniqueness of people as individuals.

A democracy that fails to make room for these facets of society will be an ineffective and dangerous regime, whether it is socialist or capitalist. It will fail because it will be unable to fulfil its primary function, which is to provide a platform for arbitration between modernity and identity. Until this happens, the struggle between grass-roots movements that fight to defend their communities and political parties that seek to win elections will only escalate.

The Fragility of Democracy in America

democracy in america

The Capitol riots exposed the depth of America’s political problems, and the fragility of democracy itself. The country is at a moment that requires a step-change in strategy and support. Without one, the United States will face a major setback similar to those already experienced by Hungary and India.

The US refuses to admit that its own democracy is in crisis at home, and stubbornly asserts itself as the template and beacon of democracy for the world. This imperious approach exacerbates the problems at home, and perpetuates democratic crises abroad. It also leads to a growing sense of democracy as an empty and hollow concept for people around the globe.

In the 19th century, Alexis de Tocqueville praised the American system of self-government based on freedom of association, freedom of the press and religious freedom, and argued that it was uniquely powerful because it was not dependent on a single centralized authority. However, he also noted that the system was vulnerable to the development of powerful interest groups and the emergence of factions with divergent interests. Tocqueville called these factions “the enemy of the people.”

Today’s acute threats to democracy are a symptom of long-term problems that have opened the door for antidemocratic politicians supported by safe seats and polarization to walk through it. The legal net below is threadbare, and the erosion of social norms has accelerated the disintegration of democratic institutions.

Americans must take action to halt the slide and build a future-centered image of what a democratic society could look like. This will require a multi-faceted effort to address the needs of Americans across the country, including those that have traditionally been left out of the full fruits of democracy. This will require addressing their sense of status loss and dignity deficit. It will require a more diverse, inclusive and transparent democracy that embraces complexities and contradictions.

It will require a new generation of leaders that are committed to the vision and principles of the American democracy. It will require a new set of values that prioritize democracy, equality, inclusion and justice over personal wealth or power. It will require an investment in a new infrastructure for civic engagement that includes local and regional organizing, grassroots activism and public policy advocacy. It will require a shift in thinking that goes beyond voter engagement to include the need to address the root causes of political alienation and a lack of faith in democracy. It will require a re-imagining of democracy that enables Americans to live in the fullness of their identities, and that does not pit them against one another. It will require the courage to invest in democracy and to challenge those who would tear it apart. This is an urgent moment that calls for an emergency response. If the nation fails to act, we may see a major democratic decline that is unprecedented in our history. But, if we move quickly and decisively, we can stop the decline and regain a global leadership role in advancing democratic principles.

How to Block Distractions on Your Devices


Freedom is one of the most important things to have in life. It gives you the ability to be yourself and pursue happiness on your own terms without having to worry about what others think. It also allows you to live your dreams and create something that will make a difference in the world.

But there are different types of freedom. Social freedoms help you feel like you can be who you are without worrying about what others think, while psychological freedom helps you feel in control of your own emotions and actions. There are even financial freedoms, which can allow you to work at your own pace and set your own hours. These freedoms are all vitally important, but there is another type of freedom that is not a lot talked about: creative freedom. Creative freedom is the ability to create and express yourself in a way that makes you happy. This can include writing, painting, music, and other creative activities. It is important for people to have creative freedom because it leads to self-actualization and a sense of purpose.

There are many ways to achieve this feeling of freedom, but the most common is to block distractions on your devices using apps such as Freedom or Focus. These apps help you track your time and prevent you from spending more than you intended to on a specific task. They also help you get rid of procrastination and break your addiction to certain websites or apps.

Whether you are trying to write, finish an assignment, or spend less time on social media, it is easy to get distracted by other websites and apps. By installing these apps, you can block any websites or apps for a specified amount of time. You can find a free version of the app with limited functionality or you can purchase a premium account that includes unlimited blocking sessions for a monthly fee.

Freedom is a great tool for helping you stay focused and blocks distracting websites and apps on all of your devices, including computers, tablets, and mobile phones. It has a lot of features that make it stand out from other similar tools, such as the ability to set up recurring blocking sessions and a dedicated team that provides live chat support. If you are worried about privacy, the app does require admin permissions, but it is safe to use and doesn’t store any data on their servers.

If you want to try this amazing app out for yourself, you can sign up here. You will be prompted to install the app on all of your devices and then asked to select the duration of your session. You can choose to start a blocking session immediately, schedule it for later, or set it up to recur every day. Then you can choose which websites or apps to block in the dashboard with preset categories such as news, social media, and adult sites. You can even choose to block entire networks with a click of a button.