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The Political System of Indonesia

The political system of indonesia, based on democratic elections and decentralized government, has strengthened significantly since the fall of Suharto in 1998. But the country remains far from fully achieving democracy and its potential for economic development, human rights protection, and peacefully resolving legitimate political differences.

Indonesia’s post-Suharto era has been shaped by a burgeoning domestic economy, decentralized governance, and democratic transition to presidential rule. But, even now, entrenched elites who have benefited from years of association with the former regime – and with the military – still dominate the country’s politics. Extreme social inequality produces marked regional variations in the quality of democracy, and antipluralist and illiberal social forces remain active. A reluctance by the military to cede full control of politics to civilian forces; oversized legislative coalitions required to govern in a multiparty presidential system, incentivizing the larger legislative parties to collude rather than compete and minimizing the effectiveness of rump parliamentary opposition; high levels of official corruption; dynastic politics; electoral clientelism and vote buying that distort representation and partisan politics from the local to the national level; and the spread of ordinances based on Sharia law undermine the government’s stated commitment to a secular state and violate international human rights standards are other serious challenges facing Indonesia.

Despite these challenges, the country’s democratic institutions are generally well-functioning, and its political leaders respect established constitutional limits on their authority. Indonesia’s president, Joko Widodo (Jokowi), continues to be immensely popular, and his two presidential campaigns stressed a pluralist form of Indonesian nationalism and emphasised effective governance. His opponent, Prabowo Subianto, a former general and son-in-law of Suharto, appealed to traditional and religious sentiments and promoted law-and-order themes.

At the same time, however, Indonesia’s parliament has weighed in on the issue of presidential term extensions, and its upper house speaker has suggested that the constitution be amended to allow the delay of elections during an emergency. These proposals have sparked protests from activists and legal experts, who point to the risk of Indonesian democracy becoming a “presidential dictatorship.”

As in other countries, the strength or weakness of democratic institutions and processes depends not only on the attitudes and values of political leaders but also on the participation of all segments of society and the functioning of a range of state and non-state actors. The best way to ensure the long-term viability of democracy in any country is to establish a framework that provides citizens with opportunities for civic engagement and participation in democratic decision-making, promotes the value of democratic participation, fosters the growth of democratic culture, and respects the sovereignty of other states. In this regard, Indonesia has much to offer the rest of Asia and beyond. We encourage you to explore this report and its related data sources, as well as our other publications on democratic governance in indonesia. We welcome your feedback.

What is Democracy?

Democracy is a form of government where people decide who governs them. It is the most common type of government in the world and it involves people having a say in decisions about things such as policies, laws and taxes. There are many different ideas about how a democracy should work, but there is broad agreement that a flourishing democracy requires a free and independent press, the freedom of speech and association and transparent decision making.

The word “democracy” comes from the Greek words demos (“people”) and kratos (rule). It refers to rule by the majority, but it is also a way of governing that depends on the participation of all citizens. Democracy is a political system that puts a premium on people’s rights and freedoms, and it is generally regarded as the best way of ensuring that these rights and freedoms are respected.

It is usually thought that democracy is the only system that offers the chance for every person to live in a fair and just society. It is also widely believed that it is the only system that provides the guarantee of individual rights such as privacy and freedom of speech. It is also often argued that democracy allows for the most effective use of resources as it ensures that all citizens can access healthcare and education. Finally, it is argued that democracy has benefits for the economy because the system encourages greater spending on these areas.

There are, however, many criticisms of democracy. Some of these are philosophical and others are practical. The philosophic critiques of the democracy have been largely based on theories of social choice and rationality such as Condorcet’s jury theorem or theories about the wisdom of the crowd.

More recently, the economic dissatisfaction of some and the rapid changes in the world have given rise to a range of anti-establishment political leaders, parties and movements. Anger at political elites and anxiety about globalization have fuelled the growth of far-right or left-wing extremist parties in Europe, for example. In other parts of the world, demonstrations such as the Arab Spring have been fueled by economic concerns and anger at perceived inequality.

Many practical criticisms of democracy have been based on the ways in which political systems fail to deliver on their promises. Some theorists have used these criticisms to argue that democracy is unsustainable or not suitable for modern times. Others have argued that the benefits of democracy outweigh the problems, and that the problems can be overcome with modest reforms. For example, the UDHR guarantees the right of peaceful assembly and association, which means that people can gather together in groups to discuss their ideas and to protest against decisions they disagree with. This activity can be inconvenient for governments, but it is essential if democracy is to work well. It is also important that people are adequately informed about politics and understand the positions of other political parties and movements so that they can make informed choices.

The Decline of Democracy in America

The US calls itself a “city on a hill” and a “beacon of democracy”. Yet, if one looks underneath the surface of its gorgeous appearance, it becomes clear that American-style democracy has become gravely ill with money politics, elite rule, political polarization, social division and racial discrimination. This has caused a decline in citizens’ pride in their democracy and left a trail of chaos and disasters wherever it has been peddled abroad.

Whether it is election campaign rhetoric or the daily political farce on Capitol Hill, people in the US are becoming increasingly dissatisfied with their democratic system. According to a poll published in 2022, Americans’ confidence in the way their government works has plunged from 90% in 2002 to 54% today.

In fact, many have lost faith in the functioning of democracy altogether. A study by the Brookings Institution concluded that America’s democracy is at a critical inflection point and losing momentum with each passing year.

One of the reasons for this is that America’s definition of democracy has changed from the original design. In the early days of the US, democracy was defined as “representative government”, with a system of checks and balances to prevent abuse of power. Now, however, the most influential people and corporations are the ones that finance elections. In this way, they choose the candidates who promise them the most benefits and influence the results of their vote. In other words, politicians no longer act as representatives of the people but rather as their financial backers’ lobbyists.

Another problem is that the media has become a major gatekeeper of democracy, but in reality it is an instrument to control the population. Media monopolies, which are profit-driven, limit people’s access to diversified information, distract their attention from public affairs, and discourage them from forming independent opinions. This has distorted people’s perception of their own government and turned democracy into a mere political game.

The US has also manipulated its image as a model of democracy abroad. In Latin America and the Caribbean, it has carried out military intervention, government subversion and other political interference under the pretext of promoting democracy. This is a dangerous game that undermines the UN-centered international system and international law, and is counterproductive to humanity’s development and progress.

In this context, the United States should pragmatically reassess its diplomatic methods and focus on cooperation instead of confrontation. It should abandon its hegemonic vision of spreading democracy and instead promote democracy that is inclusive, just and fair to all countries. Only in this way can its self-styled democracy be restored to its true meaning and function and serve as a role model for the world. Otherwise, the US will continue to suffer from the incongruity between its proclaimed values and actions, which will ultimately endanger its own interests.

What Does Freedom Mean?

Freedom is an important concept. People who are in jail or living under an oppressive government often long for it. And people who are not in these situations also want to have it. But what exactly does freedom mean?

A basic definition of freedom is the power or right to act as one wishes without interference from outside sources. But even this is too broad a definition to fully describe what freedom means. It can’t be defined simply as the absence of constraint, because every action has its own constraints. A person can be free to choose a path of action that is not constrained but can still be dangerous or harmful to others. Similarly, someone can be free to do what they want but not have the money or resources to do so.

So a more useful way to think about freedom is to consider the freedoms that people need and want to have in order to function well in society. This can include a wide range of things from the ability to express their opinions to the freedom to choose their lifestyles. Some of these are more important than others.

For example, a person can be free to practice their religion without fear of government repression or persecution. This is a fundamental liberty that everyone should have, and if it isn’t being fulfilled, it should be a concern for us all.

The freedom to have what we want is closely related to the freedom to speak out against injustices and to organize public protests. It is also linked to the freedom of association – the right to form clubs, societies, trade unions and political parties with whomever we wish – and the freedom to peaceful assembly – the right to hold public meetings. These are all important aspects of what it means to be free in the modern world, and they are under threat around the globe.

Freedom is also related to the ability to learn and grow. The more freedom a person has, the greater their potential to develop in all areas of life. For example, learning a new language is a great way to increase your freedom of speech. Learning to play a musical instrument will expand your freedom of expression and allow you to communicate with more people in your life.

So a good definition of freedom might be the ability to choose and change as you see fit, but not to do anything that is damaging or harmful to others. To put it another way, if you are allowed to bang on the piano keys as much as you want, you’re not going to produce beautiful music. But if you have an instructor who guides you with discipline, then you can produce wonderful tunes that will delight and inspire those around you. Similarly, the more freedom you have, the more you can contribute to the betterment of mankind and the future of our planet.

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Prediksi lain yang patut dipertimbangkan adalah angka 5790. Meskipun prediksi ini tidak dapat dijamin keakuratannya, namun tidak ada salahnya untuk mencoba keberuntungan dengan mengandalkan angka ini.

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The Importance of Law

Law is the set of rules, customs and principles that are geared to control human behavior and keep societal order. Law encompasses a broad spectrum of ideas and concepts such as justice, morality, reason, order, and honesty from both the judicial and societal viewpoints.

Ultimately, the study of law provides insight into how a country’s laws evolve and adapt to change over time. It also helps people better understand the role that a legal system plays in creating and protecting an equitable society.

A law is a definite rule that must be obeyed by everyone within a community, with sanctions in place for breaking the rules. It is a powerful tool to ensure that people live in peace and that their personal and property rights are protected. There are different types of laws, such as civil law and criminal law, which deal with specific topics. For example, tort law covers compensation for damages that result from car accidents or defamation. Offenses against the state, such as terrorism or murder, are dealt with by criminal law.

One of the biggest problems with the concept of law is that it often fails to account for human limitations and biases. This problem is especially evident when the courts and other governing bodies are filled with individuals who have different personal opinions, beliefs, and prejudices. However, this problem can be overcome by creating a centralized judiciary that is made up of unbiased and experienced judges who are committed to maintaining the integrity of the legal system.

There are many definitions of law, but the most common one describes it as a set of guidelines or rules that must be followed in order to keep peace in a community. Other definitions have more societal or moral implications, such as Bentham’s utilitarian theory that states that “law is a collection of commands, backed by threats of sanction, from a sovereign, to whom men have a habit of obedience.” Natural lawyers, such as Jean-Jacques Rousseau, believe that laws should reflect a set of moral and unchangeable principles of nature.

Regardless of the precise definition, all laws have an impact on people’s lives. The benefits of having an effective legal system are numerous, including:

The process of creating a law starts with bill sponsors in the House and Senate who want to push the legislation. They then schedule hearings in committees and, depending on the outcome of those hearings, a bill can be moved forward to the floor of the House or Senate for debate. In addition, some bills will be sent back to committee for further discussion before a final decision is reached. If a bill passes both the House and Senate, it can then be signed by the President and become law. It is important to note that laws can be amended during the legislative process or even after they are passed into law by the President. Therefore, it is essential to be flexible and adaptable to the changing needs of society in order for a law to remain effective.

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What Is Law?


Law is a system of rules that a society or government develops to deal with things like crime, business agreements, and social relationships. The precise nature of law is subject to debate and is usually described as a complex combination of both science and art. The concept of law is a fundamental part of most societies and governments. It defines what is and is not permitted, rewards and punishments and provides guidance for individuals in making decisions. It can be enforced by the state via a police force or by private individuals through contracts. The scope of law is vast and diverse, covering topics such as air and maritime law, contract law, criminal and family law, labour and commercial laws, taxation law, constitutional law, and the study of legal systems.

A common way to define law is a set of powerful rules that must be followed by all members of a society. These might be written down, or simply agreed upon, and then passed into law by a group. The rules are generally enforceable and punishable by the state. The rules might cover anything from driving standards to the minimum wage, and can be applied to both citizens and non-citizens. The law might also include a code of ethics and a moral framework to guide the behaviour of all citizens.

Other definitions of law focus on the purpose or function of the laws, which may be to impose certain standards, maintain order, settle disputes, and protect liberties and rights. Civil law deals with the ways in which a citizen can challenge or change a government decision. Employment law covers the three-party industrial relationship of worker, employer and trade union, with issues like health and safety regulation, and the right to strike. Administrative law deals with the ways in which a government department operates, and includes things like regulations and court orders. Criminal law is used to punish people who break these rules, and constitutional law covers the rights of citizens, including their rights to a trial and a fair hearing.

The idea of law is a vital and complex one, which has been shaped by a wide range of influences. Some think of it as an absolute principle, that should always be obeyed, irrespective of the consequences. Others view it as a flexible tool, which can be modified by the circumstances in which it is used. Even something that might seem to be an absolute fact, such as the law of gravity, can actually be changed by scientific research in the future.

Law is a crucial aspect of any government, and it’s important to understand how the rules are made, enforced, and changed. The most well-run countries are often those that have the most stable and democratic form of government, with a system of law that works for all citizens. This means that those in power are accountable to the public, and can be removed from office if they don’t do a good job.

Democracy in Indonesia

democracy in indonesia

The transition to democracy after the New Order era, known as reformasi, has been a story of progress and resilience. Public trust in institutions such as parliament and courts has been rebuilt, corruption rooted out, and the military has undergone limited structural and cultural reforms. Indonesia boasts a robust civil society, a free and active press, and many political parties competing for popular support. Its citizens are generally able to participate freely in elections, and it is widely accepted that these constitute the sole legitimate path to political power.

But Indonesia is not immune to democratic backsliding. The stagnation that characterized Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono’s second term as president gave way to a more far-reaching pattern of democratic regression under his successor, Joko Widodo. In the last few months, presidential and ruling-party elites have been accelerating this slide by implementing measures that will diminish democratic space.

One of the most important of these is a proposal to revert to indirect regional elections throughout the country, arguing that voters in certain regions are not competent enough to elect their own leaders. This solution is deeply flawed on several fronts. First, it misdiagnoses the root causes of Indonesia’s underperforming local governance. Rather than a lack of competency, the main issue is that Indonesia’s political parties are ill-equipped to vet competent candidates and connect with voters in an era of escalating campaign spending. Moreover, parties often auction nominations for regional elections to raise operational funds.

Another problem is that the proposal overlooks the importance of empowering different communities to participate in the political process. This is especially crucial in a nation of more than 17,000 islands where regional and local identities are central to Indonesian culture and identity. It would also deprive indigenous communities and other minorities of the chance to directly choose their own leaders.

Lastly, the plan would weaken civil-military balances by allowing former military commanders to play prominent roles in politics without explicitly entrenching ideas that they must submit to democratic civilian authority. Although Indonesia’s civil-military divide is rarely clear cut, it will be difficult to reverse the trend toward militarization under Jokowi, as he continues to appoint military figures to key posts and enlists them in domestic security duties that exacerbate their influence and perception of superiority over civilians.

Ultimately, a return to the illiberal politics of the 1950s and 1960s could prove disastrous for Indonesia. This is why it is so important to strengthen democratic institutions, including a strong civilian bureaucracy, independent judiciary, and free and active civil society, while at the same time continuing to expand economic opportunity and social welfare. Unless these conditions are met, the potential for democratic backsliding in Indonesia will continue to grow and put Indonesia’s long-term development at risk. This is why it’s so vital to support the government as it moves forward on its ambitious agenda for the future.