Democracy in Indonesia

After decades of authoritarian rule, Indonesia entered a period of reformation that began in 1998. Its transition to democracy has been marked by structural changes (such as devolution of power and limits to the president’s powers) but also continuities (such as entrenched poverty, political polarization, and the clustering of capital at society’s elite).

Although democracy in indonesia has progressed considerably since the New Order, challenges remain. Significant economic and judicial corruption, the clout of the military, and the dominance of old elites in regional legislatures limit citizens’ ability to choose their policies and hold elected officials accountable. The state’s anti-corruption bodies are often the tools of contending elites, and investigations into serious cases do not result in effective prosecutions. Indonesia’s nascent civil society has emerged as an important counterweight to these trends, bolstered by strong and growing NGOs focused on the defense of democracy and human rights.

Since the end of the Suharto era, the government has moved to decentralize power and give Indonesians more say over their daily lives by holding direct regional elections for governors, mayors, and other regional executives. These moves have been largely successful, and Indonesia has become a model for other countries in the region that want to emulate its political reforms.

The upcoming 2024 presidential election presents an opportunity for Indonesia to further strengthen its democracy by introducing more democratic mechanisms at the local level. While the government is considering a number of electoral reforms, it should move quickly to ensure that direct elections are held for mayors and governors across the country. Moreover, it should implement a comprehensive scheme to address corruption and empower civil society.

Lastly, public officials should understand that, while democracy in indonesia is guaranteed by law and institutions, the country depends on its society to provide feedback on their performance and conduct. It is vital that public officials do not view criticisms of their actions as attacks on the country, or criminalize them under laws that protect freedom of expression.

Indonesians should embrace and celebrate their democracy, but it is important to remember that a robust democracy requires vigilance. Democracy is not simply about holding free and fair elections, but about ensuring that those elections are legitimate and produce results that reflect the views of the people. This will require the full involvement of Indonesia’s society, including civil society and its NGOs, which must take an active role in protecting Indonesia’s democratic landscape from the forces that are working to undermine it.

This article was first published in the November 2018 issue of Development and Democracy. Read the full issue here. To receive our newsletter in your inbox each month, sign up here. This feature is part of a partnership between Development and Democracy and the International Institute for Strategic Studies. Read our full editorial policy here.

Please note: Due to licensing restrictions, the International Institute for Strategic Studies cannot accept payments from foreign entities in exchange for coverage of specific topics or events.

The Benefits and Disadvantages of Democracy


There are many different systems of democracy – presidential democracies, parliamentary democracies, ones that use a majoritarian system and others that use a proportional system, democracies that are monarchies and more – but they all have one thing in common: the people have power over their governments. It’s a political and social system that ensures all people have the opportunity to have their views heard and to have their rights protected, which is why the United Nations supports democratic governance as a universal standard for sustainable human development.

Democracies guarantee a broad range of freedoms and protections for people, give them more say over decisions that affect their lives, and can prevent abuse of power by elected officials (Acemoglu et al, 2010). This enables them to foster greater economic growth than autocracies or nondemocracies, as well as promote human development in general.

Democracy can also help address inequalities that would otherwise be hard to correct, such as inequality of opportunity based on a person’s birthplace or class. It allows for a level of redistribution of resources based on a people’s choices and preferences, which can be adjusted regularly to reflect changing needs and circumstances. It also allows for a more level playing field for businesses, which in turn helps reduce unemployment.

But there are also some challenges that come with democracy. For example, not everyone is informed enough to vote in a fair and effective way. In addition, politicians can often spread misleading information about their opponents during election campaigns. This can lead to a lack of voter participation, as well as frustration and disillusionment with politics.

A key part of democracy is the right to freedom of thought and conscience. This means that people should have the right to hold any opinion they want, even if it’s a view that is considered ‘wrong’ by the majority of other people. It’s important to protect this freedom because if people are not allowed to think differently, they can’t contribute new ideas and perspectives to society.

Democracy also requires people to be active citizens, whether they are voting or participating in civic activities like volunteering and activism. However, some people are not able to take advantage of this and are not active participants in their own societies. As a result, many people feel disconnected from their government and have less trust in their democratic system. However, a growing number of young people are becoming more engaged in politics and see their role as an important part of the solution to problems in their countries. This could mean that the next generation of leaders will be more committed to a healthy democracy.

Democracy in America

democracy in america

Democracy in america is more than just a political system. It’s an ethical tenet that Americans should promote as a means of improving people’s lives around the world and advancing our country’s interests. It’s a societal value that has been embodied in such historic events and movements as the Declaration of Independence, the Bill of Rights, the abolitionist movement, the civil rights movement and affirmative action. It’s a principle that’s reflected in the phrase “government of the people, by the people and for the people.”

The US was the first nation to adopt democracy as its form of government and it has set a standard that other countries should follow. Nevertheless, many observers believe that the US is no longer a shining city on a hill and that the rest of the world sees American democracy as a “shattered, washed-up has-been.”

In the 2021 survey, 57% of international respondents and 69% of Americans say they don’t think the US political system works well. The reasons are varied, but the most common is that the system is too partisan and political. Another reason is that it has too many special interests and lobbies controlling the system. Another is that the system’s governing processes are cumbersome and confusing.

Moreover, the system’s checks and balances are distorted by political polarization. The most liberal Democrat is now significantly to the left of the most conservative Republican, and both parties have a hard time finding areas of consensus. This has exacerbated political polarization, which has contributed to the rise of extremist ideologies and populism in the US.

It’s also true that the US has often used its self-styled model of democracy as a pretext for meddling in other countries’ internal affairs. In such cases, the result has been political chaos and social unrest in those countries. The US needs to rethink its approach and take on more international responsibilities and global public goods, rather than using its values as a weapon of war or carrying out military intervention and subversion under the false flag of democracy promotion.

The COVID-19 pandemic, economic slowdown and climate change crisis are global problems that require all nations to work together for a common good. Supporting democracy in the world is one of the best ways to ensure those global concerns are addressed and that the world remains peaceful, prosperous, sustainable and environmentally friendly. In other words, promoting democracy is the one national interest that enables all other national interests to be secured. And that’s the only way to ensure the continued well-being of our great nation. Brian Klaas, June 20, 2021.

What Is Freedom?


Freedom is the ability to choose what you want to do, when you want to do it. It gives you the power to explore new ideas, pursue your passions, and form meaningful relationships. Freedom is vital for a fulfilling life and enables you to live the way you want without any restrictions. Freedom is also a right that every person has and must fight for.

The concept of freedom is a complex and multifaceted idea that can be interpreted in many different ways. For example, some people believe that freedom is the absence of interference while others view it as the free capacity to make choices. Both interpretations of freedom are valid, but there are some key differences between them.

Among other things, freedom means being able to travel anywhere in the world so long as you can afford it and nobody is stopping you. This is an example of negative liberty, while if you are unable to travel because of your physical limitations, then that is an example of lacking positive liberty.

Another important aspect of freedom is the right to have your own opinions and beliefs without having them attacked or ridiculed. This is known as the freedom of speech and is one of the most important human rights. Without the freedom of speech, there is no way to debate or discuss important issues with other people. This freedom is what allows for the exchange of information and ideas that is necessary for a democratic society.

Many of the most important aspects of freedom are related to personal freedom, which is a fundamental human right. This includes the freedom to travel, dress however you choose, speak your mind, and pursue your dreams. This freedom is vital for a fulfilling life and a strong sense of self-worth.

In addition to personal freedom, there are several other types of freedom that are equally as important, such as the freedom to vote and participate in elections, the freedom to own property, and the freedom to marry. Each of these freedoms helps to contribute to a democratic society and ensures that all citizens have equal rights.

Freedom is a distraction blocking app that helps users stay focused and get work done by letting them block websites, apps and even the internet. It is an excellent choice for those who need help staying on task and is particularly useful for students or writers who struggle to stay away from social media, email, games or other distracting websites. The app can be used across multiple devices, and users can create blocks from pre-set lists or customize them to their own preferences. The app also allows users to schedule sessions that will automatically start when they need them and can include a variety of other features to improve productivity, including the option to use ambient noises to block out distractions. Users can also set their own screen time goals and monitor their productivity over time.

What is Law?


Law is a set of rules created and enforced by the state to ensure a society based on freedom and fairness. It is a foundation of any society and can be broken or defied through rebellion or resistance, but the main function of laws is to protect citizens from violence and establish a basic framework for order.

Law is complex and has many definitions and interpretations. The simplest is that law is the imposition of a sovereign authority and the obligation of obedience on the part of all subjects to that authority: a rule or guideline that must be obeyed. This explains why the word is also used as a synonym for government, a description of a political system that gives power to a group of people who have to obey its rules and can punish those who break them.

The most common law is written, and in most countries there are national constitutions or charters that enumerate the rights of the citizens. These documents define a legal system in which an executive or legislative branch of government sets laws, while courts interpret and uphold them. The laws that are enacted are called statutes, and the collection of these is called a code. A well-known example is the United States Code, which is a codification of all laws, including regulations, of the Federal Government. Many states have their own versions, varying slightly from the Federal version.

Some of the laws are complex and technical, while others are largely concerned with social and ethical issues. For example, environmental protection laws seek to penalise polluters within domestic legal systems. Aviation law covers all the regulations and standards relating to piloting and aircraft operation. These are generally aligned with international laws set by the International Civil Aviation Organisation, or ICAO.

Other laws are derived from religion, and a great many religious communities have their own law codes, such as the Jewish Halakha, Islamic Sharia and Christian canon. These are usually based on religious precepts, but can be elaborated by further human elaboration of interpretation and reasoning using concepts such as Qiyas (reasoning by analogy), Ijma (consensus) and precedent.

A large number of laws govern all kinds of specific activities, such as banking, military activity, criminal justice, labour or property. Many of these laws are influenced by international laws, such as those on copyrights or patents. Some are based on economic factors, such as the price of oil and other natural resources, which can change quickly and require laws to adapt. The law can also be a powerful force for social restriction, such as censorship, criminal punishment and the police. Articles that deal with the relationship between law and other aspects of the political system are constitutional; ideology; political party; and political system. The law is also an important component of a society, and articles that describe the institutions, community and relationships that form its basis are civil society; censorship; crime and punishment; and government.

Democracy in Indonesia

democracy in indonesia

In the 20 years since its emergence as an open, multiparty democracy, Indonesia has enjoyed free and mostly transparent national elections. Its transition from authoritarian rule has, with one notable exception in 2001, proceeded smoothly and without violence. However, the democratic experiment remains fragile. A powerful elite that benefited from long associations with Suharto’s regime continues to dominate politics and economic life, while the political opposition is weak.

While the country has made progress in eliminating poverty, it has not eliminated inequality or even come close to closing the wealth gap. A significant number of citizens remain economically vulnerable and the activities of radical sectarian elements threaten to destabilize society.

Amid the turbulence, President Joko Widodo has sought to reassert his control over the state apparatus and widen his political power. He has moved to limit the role of the independent institutions that are the basis for good governance and ensure fair and free elections, including the electoral commission and the supreme court. He has also expanded his veto power over legislation, a move that has been widely condemned by observers.

The government’s attempt to change the constitution and reclaim some presidential power was roundly rejected in a popular referendum, but its supporters are pushing ahead with other reforms that have critics concerned. They include plans to revert to indirect regional elections, which were used under the New Order regime, and to restore the upper house of parliament as the highest legislative body.

Indirect election rules privilege old elites over voters and enable collusive horse-trading for votes among parties, diminishing the impact of policy preferences and reducing the ability of voters to identify and punish non-performing leaders. Indirect elections were introduced as part of the democratization process but, in practice, they do not offer a genuine choice for citizens.

A largely vibrant media environment in Indonesia offers some protections for journalists, but legal and regulatory restrictions still restrict freedom of expression. The 2008 Law on Electronic Information and Transactions criminalizes the distribution or accessibility of information that is considered “contrary to moral norms of Indonesia” or that involves gambling, blackmail, or defamation. The monopoly on the distribution of news and information by state-owned companies is a source of criticism, especially when their news coverage favors the interests of the government and the governing party.

A weak civil society is unable to challenge predatory interests or change the balance of power, and the ability of ordinary citizens to establish businesses and own property is constrained by bureaucratic red tape and corruption. Non-governmental organizations (NGOs) have limited capacity to protect human rights and promote good governance, and their funding depends on donors whose agendas often conflict with those of the government. The government has also restricted the freedom of universities to conduct research, with a 2021 presidential regulation declaring that the national philosophy, Pancasila, must guide their research and innovation policies. This has raised concerns that authorities will try to restrict research that is not in line with official ideology.

Democracies and Human Rights


Democracy: the fine balance between society and government

The word ‘democracy’ derives from two Greek words, meaning people (demo) and power or rule (kratia). Democracies give people the right and ability to participate in decision-making based on their own views. Democracy is a process that must be nurtured throughout a lifetime, with young people encouraged to engage from early on. The benefits of a democratic society extend far beyond the voting booth, with the values and principles that are central to democracy being applied within families, schools, communities and business organizations.

In an age of increasing globalization and increased interconnectedness, democracy is a powerful mechanism to promote human rights and provide opportunity for everyone. It also provides a framework for the exchange of ideas, cultures and traditions. While not every country can be described as a perfect democracy, most of them share a core set of values and principles that support human rights. These include:

Most democracies allow citizens to vote for their elected representatives, which can be a powerful tool to make sure that all voices are heard in the political process. However, it is important to remember that not all voters are well-informed. There is a need for education in politics so that citizens can understand the issues they are voting on, and how these will affect them and their community in the future. Unfortunately, politicians often spread misinformation about their opponents in order to gain votes. This can lead to a lack of understanding about the policies that are being voted on, and it may contribute to voter apathy or disillusionment.

Aside from elections, democracy can be a mechanism for citizen engagement through other forms of participation such as volunteering, civic activism and public discourse. It allows individuals to influence the way resources are distributed in a given society, and regular tweaks can be made to this distribution according to popular opinion. This is a fundamental part of what distinguishes democracy from other forms of governance, and it helps to create societies that are fairer and more sustainable.

A fair judiciary, gender equality and the freedom of religion are among the highest-rated democratic priorities worldwide. However, in some countries, the democratic system has not been able to ensure that these goals are achieved, particularly for minority groups. This can be a result of electoral systems that do not promote inclusiveness or of the inability for minority groups to organize or have their voice heard at the ballot box. Moreover, the economic inequality that exists in many democracies can also impact the effectiveness of democracy as a means of creating equitable opportunities for all.

The Pandemic of Democracy in America

democracy in america

America calls itself a “city upon a hill” and a “beacon of democracy.” But the country’s self-styled democracy is now gravely ill with money politics, elite rule, and political polarization. It is no longer a democracy of the people but a rich men’s game based on capital, and it is destroying public interests.

In a country where corruption and deception reign, the public loses faith in government officials and is pessimistic about the future of democracy. The political infighting, money politics, and vetocracy of the US are destroying democratic ideals and eroding democracy’s basic tenets such as fairness, equal opportunity, and transparency.

Amid the ongoing pandemic, American society has become increasingly polarized and intolerant to others. The Capitol riots have exposed social rifts and political conflicts in the country and sparked debate about how to deal with them. The growing divide between Democrats and Republicans has undermined the country’s two-party system. The US is losing its credibility as a model of democracy abroad.

The squabble over the 2020 election has further eroded public confidence in democracy. A recent poll by The Associated Press-NORC Center for Public Affairs Research found that only 16% of Americans think democracy is working well or extremely well, and 45% believe it’s not functioning properly. The public has lost faith in the electoral process, with a third of voters saying it is rigged. The poll also finds that many people feel the media is too biased toward one side, and it is difficult for them to distinguish between news and propaganda.

The US has long interfered in other countries’ internal affairs and waged wars under the pretense of democracy. Its unsustainable policies have fueled regional turbulence and led to humanitarian disasters. As a result, it has lost its ability to protect and promote democracy worldwide. It is time for the US to pragmatically rethink its strategy and focus on cooperation instead of confrontation.

The US needs to reform its own democracy first before trying to boost the democratic process in other countries. The country should hold a domestic democracy summit to address injustice, inequality, and disinformation. Otherwise, it will be impossible for the US to spread democracy and act as an example of good governance abroad. As the world’s oldest democracy, the US must set a higher standard for itself.

The Definition of Freedom


Freedom is an important concept for a wide range of disciplines, including philosophy, political science, history, and economics. Freedom is also a central theme in many popular books, movies, and TV shows.

Freedom has several different meanings, from the abstract idea of being able to do whatever one wants to the concrete state of not being in prison or in slavery. In the philosophical sense, freedom is a moral principle that individuals must have the right to pursue their own interests in life without interference from others. It is the basis for most of the freedoms we have in our society today, such as the freedom to express oneself, to travel freely, and to marry and have children.

In politics, freedom refers to the state of being unencumbered by government control or influence. It is also the basis for the most common freedoms, such as the freedom of speech and religion. Freedom is also the principle that everyone, regardless of status, has an equal opportunity to succeed in a democracy.

It is important to understand the definition of freedom in order to have a better understanding of how our societies are built. A major part of the debate about freedom is that it does not necessarily mean equality. It could mean that some people have more freedom than others, but it should not be used to justify discrimination.

There are many benefits to having the freedom of choice, and it is important that we keep working toward that goal. It allows people to make more informed decisions about the things they care about and it helps them be happier with their lives. Freedom is also a basic human right that should not be taken for granted.

Using Freedom to block distractions is an effective way to get work done and improve your digital habits. You can set up a focus session and lock the app so that you can’t exit out of it early, which is helpful when willpower is limited and you need to stick to your goals for longer periods of time.

As a student, it can be difficult to focus on work when there are so many distractions from social media and the internet. It is easy to waste time on the internet instead of doing meaningful work. To be productive, it is essential to block all distractions and use Freedom to eliminate the internet so you can complete tasks with more efficiency. The app has a variety of preset lists to help you get started and it is easy to set up a timer to keep you motivated throughout the day. Freedom users report that they are more productive and have a healthier relationship with their phones after using the tool. It is worth trying out this app to see if it will work for you! It is available on iPhone and Android.

Articles on Law


Law is a system of rules that a particular place or authority develops to deal with things like crime, business agreements and social relationships. The word can also refer to the profession of people who study and work in this area, known as lawyers, jurists or attorneys (in the United States) and solicitors or barristers (in the UK).

A legal system is important for a society because it provides a framework of rules that prevents bad behaviour and ensures that people are treated fairly. Some systems of law are better at doing this than others. For example, an authoritarian government may keep the peace and maintain the status quo but it can oppress minorities or political opponents (as seen in Burma or Zimbabwe). Other countries have managed to build stable, fair, open and accessible laws that protect core human, procedural and property rights. These are known as the ‘rules of law’ and they can be based on principles drawn from culture, family and religion.

The ‘rules of law’ can be found in many different places in a country. For example, a constitution may lay out the fundamental principles that should govern a nation’s politics and economics. Other sources of law are case law and legislation (i.e., statutes and ordinances). Case law is a body of legal decisions that has been interpreted by the courts or other tribunals. Legislation is the act of enacting a law, such as a statute or ordinance.

There are numerous branches of law, including contract law, criminal law, medical law, property law and torts. For example, physician-patient privilege is a common rule of medical law that protects a patient’s privacy by limiting how their private conversations with a doctor can be shared with other medical professionals. Criminal law deals with the punishment of offences against the state and can be governed by constitutional, civil or common law.

A legal article can be written about any of these topics or could focus on a specific area of the law that is currently being debated. This would involve analyzing the arguments/perspectives put forward for and against the law in question and perhaps offer a new line of reasoning or perspective. It is important that an article on law is clear and easy to read, particularly for non-legal audiences. The use of big legal jargon is discouraged as it can confuse readers and may make the article seem dry or irrelevant. It is also helpful if an article can answer any frequently asked questions that might be raised in the minds of readers. This is particularly important for those who are considering studying or working in this field. These articles can be a valuable resource for students, teachers and those looking to gain a deeper understanding of the law. They can be a great tool for learning about the different theories, concepts and beliefs of the law. These articles can help to educate the reader about the law in a fun and engaging way.