Democracy in Indonesia

democracy in indonesia

After the collapse of the Suharto regime, Indonesia went through a period of transition, known as the Reformasi. This period saw the emergence of a more democratic political environment. However, there was a significant amount of repression and political instability during this time.

The political landscape in Indonesia has undergone major changes over the last decade. Decentralization laws were introduced, giving greater autonomy to the regions, and direct elections were held for the President and the national legislature in 2004. In 2005, direct elections for regional leaders began, with the first round completed in 2008.

Megawati was accused of inactivity during her presidency, but she launched the major reforms of the post-199 era, including direct presidential elections. She also de-politicized the military and established the Constitutional Court. She also enshrined the concept of local elections. Following Megawati’s presidency, Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono won the first direct presidential elections in 2004 and the second one in 2009. However, some critics saw these as ineffective and undemocratic.

While many aspects of Indonesian society have changed since the Suharto era, the country is still facing many of the same challenges. Inequality in the wealth distribution continues to be a major issue, with half of the population living in poverty. According to the World Bank, a widening wealth gap in the country is contributing to social pressures. Meanwhile, radical sectarian elements continue to threaten Indonesia’s stability.

The Indonesian political system is divided into several distinct parties. These parties differ in their Islamic orientation and their ability to attract voters. The most pluralistic party is the Indonesian Democratic Party of Struggle, which is supported by religious minorities and syncretic Muslims. However, there are also several conservative Islamic parties, such as the Prosperous Justice Party (PKH) and the United Development Party (PDK).

In addition to a lack of free speech, Indonesians are often subject to extra-judicial threats. These threats can come from religious organizations or economic elites, as well as from the security forces. While the National Human Rights Commission has a role in ensuring the protection of human rights, it is still not required to enforce its recommendations. As a result, the commission’s reports have not led to effective prosecutions.

During the gubernatorial election in Jakarta in 2017, Ahok, an ethnically Chinese Indonesian, was the target of an explicitly sectarian campaign. Islamist figures and hardline Muslim groups were incensed over the election results. Islamists claimed that non-Muslims had no right to hold high office in a Muslim country.

The Basics of Democracy


The premise of democracy is that a large group of people can produce more effective decisions than a small group of experts. By involving many people in decision-making, a democracy is able to utilize different sources of information and viewpoints when examining a proposed law. As a result, the process is inclusive and fair.

Democracy promotes rational thinking among its subjects. Because each individual is required to contribute to collective decision-making, citizens feel encouraged to speak up and express their individual opinions. Furthermore, participation in a democracy requires citizens to listen to other people and consider what they have to say. They become more active citizens, which helps make a democracy a success.

A major criticism of democracy is that citizens are largely unaware of its workings. A democracy can limit citizens’ freedom and choices if citizens are not informed about it. The ill-informed citizenry makes it easier for special interests to influence government. It also inhibits politicians from considering the views of the common good. This makes politicians more likely to engage in motivated reasoning in order to confirm their political identity.

Democracy has a long history and can be traced back to prehistoric times. The ancient Greeks practiced direct democracy, although it was difficult to administer. The concept of democracy first emerged in the 5th century BCE, when the city-state of Athens, the most populous of Ancient Greece, used a direct democracy to run their society. Over time, however, direct democracy was considered too cumbersome to be used in large nation-states and gave way to the system of representative democracy.

The theory of democracy is based on the idea that people should be given decision-making power proportional to the impact they have. Parpolity consists of a nested council structure. Local councils consist of twenty to fifty members and send delegates to higher levels of the society. This structure is designed to work with the participatory economy.

The basic principles of democracy include the protection of basic human rights. Democracy also strives to provide free and fair elections for all citizens. Furthermore, it aims to encourage participation and accountability among the citizens. In most democracies, this participation is encouraged by the constitution, and participation is the key to a successful democracy.

The cornerstones of democracy include the freedom of assembly, association, property rights, freedom of speech, and freedom of religion. Other core concepts include inclusiveness, equality, and freedom from unjust government deprivation of rights. In addition to these fundamental values, democracy is a social system that promotes the development of a society.

In theory, the purpose of democratic processes is to gather the preferences of citizens and to determine social policies. In practice, this means that the focus of democratic participation should be on voting rather than determining policy positions.

Democracy in America

democracy in america

The idea of democracy in America has its roots in ancient Roman, Celtic, and Teutonic ideas, and it has evolved through a series of political adjustments. Franklin, one of our country’s founding fathers, frequently speaks of this process as a practical one. The development of democracy in the United States is one half of an apple that is shaped by civil discord.

The American political system has been hijacked by a wealthy minority. This is evident in the practice of political donations, which are viewed as legitimate bribery. The ultra-rich 0.01% of the US population have given the American political system vast sums of money to ensure that their candidates have greater clout. Money politics, along with lobby groups, have closed off many channels for ordinary Americans to express their views.

Tocqueville argued that equality is not the same as the right to be different. The concept of equality is that people are equal, and that they should be. Tocqueville also argued that the inequalities he saw in Europe were neither necessary nor desirable. Democracy promotes equality by dismantling inequalities.

In 1831, French sociologist Alexis de Tocqueville visited the United States to observe the prison system. He returned with a wealth of observations that he used to write Democracy in America. This book was one of the most influential books of the nineteenth century. It is full of insights into democracy and equality in the United States.

Democracy is the process by which government is sanctioned and made available to the people. It also means that wealth owners must use it for public benefit and bring to justice those who would want to take it away from them. A nation’s democracy must be able to balance the interests of industry and politics in order to prosper.

Democracy in America is an excellent work of modern democratic literature. Although Tocqueville makes the mistake of over-exaggerating the importance of a strong and well-intentioned political system, he stays true to the spirit of democracy as the normative ideal. The author also understands that democracy has many flaws that lead it to self-contradiction and even self-destruction.

Democracies are the result of struggles for equality among people. The spirit of democracy, thus, relates to this struggle. However, it is impossible to have a democracy that is without flaws. And, while a democracy can be a powerful thing, it is not a perfect system. Despite these imperfections, it contributes to good morals in America.

The US claims to be the city on a hill and its political system was built to protect freedom and democracy. However, democracy in America is in grave danger. In the past, the US has interfered in other countries’ internal affairs and waged wars under the guise of democracy. As such, it is necessary to examine the status of democracy in the US.

The Importance of Freedom


Freedom is the capacity to make choices. Yet no one can exercise freedom in a vacuum. Everyone faces constraints and restrictions, and how an individual responds to these influences determines how free they are. For example, if a government bans demonstrations, an individual is not free to participate in those demonstrations. And, a law against vandalism might not be just, but it is a law.

Freedom can be defined as the power of a sentient being to act according to their wishes. When we wish to achieve a goal, we bend our thoughts and efforts toward realizing that goal. This capacity is our freedom. A perfect expression of freedom would be experienced by a Buddha or supreme God. But, in real life, we face various barriers that impede freedom, including cultural and physical barriers.

One way to understand the importance of freedom is to consider its value in the context of the First Amendment. In the US, this freedom protects the right to speak, write, petition, and associate. Furthermore, it is a necessary condition for voting. Consequently, freedom is essential to a free society. If our society does not practice freedom, we are no longer free.

Freedom of speech is essential for an open society. In many societies, governments routinely jail people who speak their minds. As such, almost every country’s constitution references the value of free speech. However, in a free society, free speech is not just important for free speech, but also for freedom of association. This freedom is important because it protects the dignity of every individual and enables individuals to realize their full human potential.

Moreover, freedom must be protected from unjust discrimination. If freedom is not guaranteed, it is not possible to enjoy equality. This means that the state should guarantee its citizens the right to make choices. Whether they are men or women, everyone should be protected from any sort of discrimination. This is the fundamental principle of freedom.

In some countries, women’s rights are curtailed by state interests, such as commercial institutions and neighborhood safety. Racial prejudice and local neighborhood associations are other examples of state interests that may limit the rights of women and minorities. Similarly, discrimination of children and historically excluded groups limits the rights of such groups. In such a situation, freedom must be tempered by the interests of the state and the interests of citizens.

Careers in Law and Policy


A law is a system of rules that governs the behavior of people. It shapes economics, politics, history, and society. It also serves as a mediator between people. In a country, law defines the rules that apply to the individual and the society. This makes it important to understand the origins of the legal system and the history of the country.

There are many types of law. Some are very specific to a country and some are more general. Regulations for public services are a good example of this. Some countries regulate energy, gas, and water. Others regulate banking and other industry. These laws help protect citizens and prevent economic crises. Here are some of the most common types of law:

The principle is the basic principle that governs an action or procedure. A principle implies a higher authority, and it implies a duty of obedience. It can also refer to an order that governs details of conduct. A principle may be either an enactment of law or an advisory communication or teaching, and it can be derived from ancient precedents.

The rule of law is an institution that promotes accountability in the government and judiciary. It is a system where the government is accountable to the people and the citizens must respect the legal norms. A country that follows the rule of law is a society where no one is above the law and everyone has equal access to protection.

In the common law system, the human element is very diffuse. It is derived from the work of many people. It is a result of a democratic process and emerges from the state’s legislative center. Fuller also believed that there is a difference between a law and an inhuman act. He argues that laws that are fair and balanced are more desirable than laws that are despotic.

Careers in law and policy include a variety of positions in the public and nonprofit sectors. These careers can range from lobbyists to policy analysts. They can also work in law enforcement or think tanks. It is a profession that requires high-level education. It can be a rewarding and lucrative career. And with the right education, it is possible to become an advocate for the rights of individuals and groups.

The Rule of Law is a political ideal that has existed for millennia. It requires laws to be public and based on public knowledge. It is also a means to limit the power of those in power. It helps people protect themselves from abuse, while reducing the asymmetry of power. Therefore, the rule of law is an important part of any political system.

While the rule of law does not constrain the state in an emergency, it does limit it in the right of government to take action against threats. In such situations, it is necessary to lay down specific legal rules to preserve the rule of law. These emergency rules suspend civil liberties and grant broad discretion to officials. Machiavelli proposed a version of this type of emergency rule in Discourses (1517).

Democracy in Indonesia

Since the fall of Suharto in 1998, Indonesia has been in a transitional period, or Reformasi. This phase has produced a more open political and social environment. Yet, the country has faced challenges. In the meantime, its citizens are clamoring for more democracy.

Despite the difficulties of the terrain, democracy in Indonesia has survived. While many critics point to the fact that Indonesia’s democracy is procedural, the presence of moderate Islamic mass organisations has contributed to the emergence of a vibrant democracy in the country. However, the author of Democracy in Indonesia argues that Indonesia’s democracy is far from perfect and needs further reforms to stay strong.

While the transition from a military-based system to a constitutional-based one is a major achievement, the country faces challenges. The collapse of the Wahid regime in 2001 led to the creation of a constitutional court, which monitors impeachment proceedings. As a result, the relationship between the executive, legislature, and judiciary has to be reformed. Megawati Sukarnoputri may have shaped the Indonesian constitution differently.

The author situates Indonesia’s experience within the wider scholarly literature on constitutional choices, stressing the historical contingency of constitutional decisions. In the case of Indonesia, Horowitz identifies four “aversive memories” that influenced the post-Suharto constitution drafters. These memories stem from the country’s unsuccessful experiment in democracy in the 1950s. Furthermore, the unsuccessful attempt to draft a new constitution combined with regional revolts gave nondemocratic actors ammunition to end democracy.

Indonesia’s electoral process has been characterized by a polarized political environment. This polarity was aggravated by the political elites’ personalities and strategies. Moreover, the country is growing more Islamized, which makes it susceptible to populism. As a result, polarizing political messages were gaining traction among the electorate.

While some observers consider the situation in West Papua to be more peaceful, many rights are still restricted. This includes freedom of speech, association, and peaceful assembly. In addition, many laws date back to the Suharto era. In addition, the judiciary in Indonesia is corrupt.

After the coup attempt in 1965, the New Order came to power and sought to isolate Indonesia from the problems it had faced since independence. It sought to maintain political order and economic development while preventing mass participation in politics. The result was a dictatorship that lasted for three decades. It also sought to curb the spread of anti-Western ideologies.

In 2017, the Indonesian gubernatorial election was marked by an explicitly sectarian campaign. A Christian, ethnic Chinese Indonesian and Jokowi ally, Ahok faced a campaign that was driven by Islamist groups. The Islamists said that a non-Muslim could not hold a high office in a Muslim-majority country. Thousands of Indonesians rallied against Ahok.

The recent electoral crisis in Indonesia has caused a crisis for Indonesia’s democracy. Since 2014, various political forces have consolidated in Indonesia, and polarization has weakened the country’s social fabric and democratic institutions. The armed forces’ role in civil affairs has increased. Many Indonesians are fearful of the damage this has done to their society.

What is Democracy?


Democracy can be defined as a form of government in which the people decide the rules for their society. This form of government can be found in cities, towns, and countries, or may be found in an international organization. However, some countries do not allow democracy. It is important to know that a democracy may not be a good thing for every society.

The basic value of democracy is that it allows people to express their views in an open and respectful manner. People can freely discuss ideas, form lobbying groups, and protest against laws and decisions made by their government. In a democracy, these freedoms are necessary in order for different views to be heard. There are many different forms of democracy and they are not all equal.

Today’s youth are increasingly engaged in activism. Many are involved in environmental groups and protest groups and are speaking out against war, child labour, and corporate exploitation. Other young people are engaged in local level activism, bringing them closer to their communities and having a direct impact. Democracy is not only about national issues; it must start at the neighbourhood level.

Democracies have a long history. The first democratic government was practiced by the ancient Greeks in the fifth century BC. Other primitive forms of democracy had existed before that, but it was the Greeks who brought democracy to the world. In the 5th century BC, the Greeks developed a form of direct democracy – the people came together and made decisions themselves by majority vote. This system is similar to what New England town meetings practice today.

Democracy has many benefits. One of these benefits is freedom of political choice. The freedom to choose your government is a fundamental prerequisite to democracy. However, it is important to recognize that it is not enough to define democracy without considering its ends. Democracy is an essential tool for fostering relationships among individuals and groups. This is why democracy is increasingly important in today’s world, when authoritarian regimes are crumbling. So let us take a closer look at what democracy does for us.

A typical example of a democracy is the US. While the American government is based on democracy, it differs from the ancient democracy in Athens because citizens don’t vote on every issue. They elect representatives to vote for them. This makes the US a democracy based on representation, not on representative democracy.

In the beginning of human history, democracy was a relatively limited form of government. The Greek word “demos” means “people” and “kratia” means “power.” The idea behind democracy was to distribute power between the people and allow people to make decisions in their communities. The Greeks even referred to this type of government as “the demos”.

The Economist Intelligence Unit’s Democracy Index aims to measure the state of democracy in 167 countries. The Index measures 60 indicators across five categories. They rank each category on a 0 to 10 scale, and then average the results to determine the overall level of democracy. Countries with a score of eight or ten are considered fully democratic, while countries with a score between four and six are considered flawed democracies.

Democracies in America

democracy in america

Alexis de Tocqueville began his studies of American democracy in 1831. At the time, he had no formal training in politics, but was impressed by the American example. He cites Lafayette, Washington, Jefferson, Madison, and Hamilton as examples of young men who had built upon freedom. As a result, he believed that America had a system of government based on freedom and liberty, with the government being led by its people.

The European colonies in America contained elements of democracy, but were different from the American version. Emigrants who fled their mother countries did not have any sense of superiority. The idea that power is a necessary evil did not apply to them. This equality was assured by poverty. Various religious and political disputes also drove rank persons to America.

Today, democracy is generally considered a good thing, but the Founders did not agree, and the American Revolution was far from a democratic victory. In fact, the American system of government had to be fought for repeatedly. Democracies in America were particularly problematic in the 1830s, as Andrew Jackson led a populist Democratic Party that repealed property-based restrictions on voting.

The first duty of leaders is to educate democracy. This includes purifying the morals and directing the energies of people. In the process, they must understand the true interests of people and adapt their government to their needs and era. This requires a new science of politics. The new science is necessary for a modern society.

Another way to engage with democracy is through participation. While voting is the most visible form of participation in our political system, participation in other forms is essential for a democracy to function properly. This participation comes in the form of pressure groups, civic initiatives, and consultative bodies. This type of participation is just as important as voting, so it is important to increase its participation.

Aside from the democratic principle, democracy is also linked to human rights. As stated in Article 21 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the will of the people should be the basis for authority in government. This means that democracy is the only form of government that is in harmony with human rights. A democracy allows citizens to exercise their rights freely.

Another aspect of democratic politics that many people think is essential is freedom of thought. This is one of the first core democratic rights. People must have freedom to think, to express their opinions, and to criticize decisions. Without this, democracy is limited. Intolerant societies can’t develop or grow. It is important to allow diverse opinions to be heard and be respected.

While this is true, democracy in America has also had its fair share of problems. For example, in the 1830s, many poor white men gained the right to vote. These changes were not achieved without much conflict. Poor Rhode Islanders formed a militia and threatened violence, which led to a change in voting rights.

The Meaning of Freedom


Freedom is the right to change and act without constraint. It is the power to fulfill one’s purpose. It is often equated with individualism and the right to choose among many alternative options. However, the meaning of freedom is more complex. Here are a few examples of different interpretations of freedom. We must understand the meaning of freedom so that we can understand its importance in our lives.

Freedom means the ability to enjoy a higher standard of living, equal opportunity for everyone, and security. It means freedom from fear, poverty, and inequality, as well as the ability to pursue scientific progress. Ultimately, without freedom, a nation is worthless. Let’s look at these three facets of freedom and how they impact our lives.

True freedom looks like a voter’s ballot, the ability to walk out of prison, and the freedom from owing anyone anything. But it is more than just the right to do whatever we want, which can lead to anarchy. For example, freedom can mean the right to speak, worship, and act as one pleases. But, freedom is only true if it doesn’t infringe on the rights of others.

We must remember that freedom is different for everyone. This concept is influenced by a variety of factors, including the country of origin. In a free society, different perceptions are valid and can coexist in harmony. Moreover, a free environment assures that one has the ability to express himself freely and without fear of being judged or stigmatized.

A democratic society is not a free utopia. Governments often attempt to stifle freedom of speech and association. In Egypt, it is even dangerous to criticize the government, which makes freedom of speech essential. The right to freedom of speech is protected in almost every country’s constitution. It is an important part of the foundations of an open society.

Once students have understood the importance of freedom, they can begin creating their own definitions of it. For each freedom, they should draw or write a tableau of how that freedom is practiced in their society. Then, they should share their ideas with a partner. The aim is to create a society that respects freedom of speech and expression and promotes equality of all people.

In addition to positive and negative freedom, we should also recognize that there is a certain level of responsibility for freedom. While free speech is a fundamental right, spreading false information or misrepresenting the truth is not protected and others can sue because of it. Positive rights, on the other hand, trammel individual rights and require the state to grant something to one group to another group.

The annual death toll from gun violence in the US is now approaching 30,000 each year. The National Rifle Association, a powerful lobbying group that promotes the right to bear arms, has resisted efforts to limit gun violence. Other progressive initiatives, such as seatbelt laws and indoor smoking bans, have also been fought against. Although these measures are an improvement in the overall public health, they have been difficult to implement.

Articles on Law


The concept of law is a common framework for governing human behavior and society. It can be found in a variety of different legal systems. These include common law, Chinese law, Egyptian law, and European law. Articles on law also discuss legal ethics and the relation between law and political systems, and they discuss how law can help solve social problems. Other articles are about the relationship between law and social sciences, such as comparative law. In addition, there are articles about Jewish and canon law.

In a common law system, the human element is diffuse. Instead of coming directly from the legislative center, law develops as a result of the work of many people. The goal is to ensure that individuals and businesses are treated fairly and that the public can be safe. This means that lawmakers must be open to public feedback, so that they can make the right decisions and make sure that they are upholding the law.

The concept of the Rule of Law is based on the idea that law should be intelligible and accessible to everyone. Because modern law is complex and technical, laypersons will often need professional advice to understand the law. Hence, it is imperative that lawyers, judges, and other professions are able to provide clear, concise, and easily understood legal guidance.

The principles of the Rule of Law are lists of principles that address both procedural and formal aspects of law. These principles are also rooted in certain substantive values. In particular, Fuller named eight formal principles of law that are fundamental to the law. These include generality, prospectivity, congruence, intelligibility, consistency, practicability, and stability.

The Rule of Law is a common ideal in political traditions. It is an important concept that can only be evaluated when understood in the context of its historical roots. Its existence means that people value it. It takes the edge off power and makes it less arbitrary, peremptory, and unpredictable. It also creates a bond of reciprocity and mutuality between individuals.

The rule of law is important in the development of democracy. Historically, this concept has been used as the basis for various legal systems. It is also used to define the role of law. In some instances, the Rule of Law has been used to describe the rights and duties of government officers. However, there are still arguments about its validity.

The Social Fact Thesis is a response to the legal positivist view. This theory is essentially composed of three theoretical commitments: the Social Fact Thesis, the Conventionality Thesis, and the Separability Thesis. Both the Social Fact Thesis argues that the validity of a legal rule depends on social facts.

The first precept of natural law is to do good and to avoid evil. The second precept is to pursue happiness. This idea was put forward by Thomas Aquinas. His natural law theory of morality posits that good and evil are objective.