Democracy in Indonesia

Democracy in Indonesia is still fragile due to ongoing political turmoil that has marred its transition to democracy. The country has moved toward economic development, but the new freedoms brought by democracy are still limited. The general population has not yet voted in a national election. The future of democracy in Indonesia is a question mark, as numerous human rights abuses continue to go unpunished.

Indonesia, officially the Republic of Indonesia, comprises a broad strip of islands in the South Pacific Ocean and Oceania. It contains more than seventeen thousand islands, including Sumatra, Java, Sulawesi, Andong, Lanai, West Timor, Palau, East Timor, and the smaller island of Borneo. A decade ago, Indonesia was led to independence after the Second World War. Under the leadership of President Sukarno, who was also a military leader during the war, the new country embarked on a period of rapid economic growth and political progress.

After three decades of full political and economic growth, along with massive US backing, Sukarno decided to attempt a military intervention into East Timor. Although the move sparked a bloody conflict that left thousands dead, Sukarno stood firm against his peers and the rest of the Indonesian military. He made a personal choice to put himself in charge of a civilian body that would re-elect him for a third term as president of Indonesia. The newly empowered military quickly launched a series of abuses against the civilian population, which brought the international community into sharp focus on Indonesia.

In response to widespread democracy in Indonesia, the United States under President Harry Truman and the United Nations Security Council (UNSC) started efforts to help ensure democracy in Indonesia. United States Secretary of State John F. Kennedy along with top US military leaders such as General Douglas MacArthur and General George S. Patton introduced the first phase of the United States’ program in Indonesia – helping the military junta defeat the Indonesian National Armed Forces (FARF). The US program called Operation Streamline was designed to provide the Indonesian military with additional training and equipment so that it could defeat the communist parties in the country. Although US assistance did not directly involve any change in the Indonesian constitution, it did push the military towards democracy. This was accompanied by the delivery of American-supplied radios and television sets to the military, which helped spread a sense of democracy throughout the country.

As the military pushed for more control over society, however, public support for democracy eroded as citizens became tired of seeing their president presides over a corrupt and inefficient government. Concerned by this erosion of public faith in the institution of democracy in Indonesia, the Ford administration negotiated an amendment to the Indonesian constitution in response to this unrest. The amended code added a stipulation that when a president had been removed due to the loss of election results, a new presidential commission would be established to choose a president based on universal suffrage. The amendment was passed into law in 1957 and remains a stain on Indonesia’s image to this day. The amended code also required a limit on the number of terms a president could serve before relinquishing power to a new president.

Military coups are not common in Indonesia, but periods of military rule have occurred several times in the past, most notably in Aceh, where a fierce battle between the armed forces and civilians resulted in the ousting of the elected president. After the downfall of the communist party, the military continued to reign as president after an election where there were limited choices for civilian oversight. These circumstances have led to a significant deterioration of political conditions in Indonesia, but the continued support from the United States and other regional governments has enabled the country to make rapid progress toward democracy.

Commercial Law – What Is It And Why Is It Important?

Law is an organized system of laws developed and enforced by governmental or social institutions to regulate societal behavior, each with its own specific definition having no reference to other law systems. It is commonly defined as an art and a science of civil law. Historically, the law has had a profound effect on the way society organized itself. As a result, the law and its practice have often promoted social order and stability.

Historically, law developed through the application of divine law, including biblical law, judicial law, and common law jurisdictions. In most cases, a nation’s government retained ultimate authority over the legality of acts undertaken by its citizens, unless the constitution was modified by a subsequent constitutional amendment. A nation’s legislature therefore generally controls what is known as the jus primae, which means first cause. The primary sources of law are the enactments of legislative bodies, court-ordered trials and tribunals, judgments of the governing bodies of the legislature, and general laws that affect the private bodies of society such as taxation, licensing, and contracts.

The development of laws is divided into two main categories: civil and criminal law. Civil laws seek to protect the rights of individuals within a polity, such as in health care, education, labor, marriage, and criminal law, while criminal laws seek to provide punishment for crimes, including capital punishment and rehabilitation. There are seven classes of civil laws, the three major ones being property laws, contracts law, and personal injury law.

Civil laws vary vastly in scope, even within a single country. Within a country, for example, property laws tend to have substantial differences from state to state, while family laws may be highly restrictive or lenient according to region. Additionally, civil and criminal laws are overlapping, as the courts may have subject matters of common law jurisdiction. This situation arises frequently in the United States. Criminal law, unlike civil law, creates its own separate system with extensive juries, mandatory sentences, and distinctions based on standing, motive, and intent.

Private rights include the right to life, liberty, and the freedom of speech and expression, which are guaranteed by the Bill of Rights of the United States Constitution and are closely related to civil rights. Civil rights include those guaranteed by the Constitution, including the right to vote, free speech, and peacefully assemble. In addition to these, other forms of natural rights such as privacy, right of privacy, and protection from unreasonable searches and seizures are also protected by law. Natural law, which includes the theories of property, person, and civil law, is the major influence in shaping private law in the United States. Civil and criminal law is the source of law that is used in courts to resolve disputes involving public or private rights. Civil law is the body of law that addresses non-criminal cases between individuals.

Commercial law refers to those laws that affect commerce, such as trademarks, copyrights, and patents, as well as the licensing of goods and services. A trademark is a word, symbol, or design that is registered by a government or some private entity with the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office to secure the rights to use the mark. The United States Copyright Office enforces all of the laws against piracy and plagiarism in addition to the intellectual property laws that protect artistic creations like books, music, films, and computer software.

Is America Really a Democracy Or a Partial Coup d’Etat?

In 1824, Alexis de Tocqueville published his classic treatise, The American Dilemma. His name is synonymous with the classic Treatise of Liberal Economy, and many people consider him the father of modern economic thought, including classical liberalism. The key thesis of his book is that democracy encourages freedom, whereas excessive government control and intervention promote slavery and aristocratic rule. Many people think of his thoughts in terms of democracy in America.

It is tempting to view America’s founders as nothing more than utopia-worshiping fools who wanted the masses to have all the material goods. That’s a bunch of nonsense, as any student of European history will tell you. Alexander Hamilton, for example, saw the US Constitution as the supreme example of democracy. He understood the vitality of democracy, and he saw the potential for freedom and economic prosperity that came from a direct democracy built on individual liberty and free markets.

Many Americans today think of America as a country stuck in a backward political science. They point to the social conditions in modern America and say that is why they oppose democracy. They don’t like democracy because it gives them too much freedom, or because they think everyone has their own rights. No one is allowed to be abusive to anyone else, and no one is forced to agree with someone else’s religious views or political philosophy. In short, Americans believe that they are the victims of a political system that does not protect their individual rights.

The fact is that America is unique, and it was not always like that. Throughout history, there have been many successful and powerful nations that have existed. Every great nation in the world has endured a civil war, and every failed nation in the world has tried to form its own government. None of these nations ever thought of itself as a democracy. In fact, most people in the world think of America as a degenerated government.

However, this unique political society in America can become a beacon of democracy to other nations. We all know that every single nation needs a stable government, a strong economy, and plenty of jobs. What America needs now is to start providing its citizens with opportunities for economic growth, social equity, and a greater sense of equality before it is too late. It may be too late for some Americans right now, but it will be too late for all of humanity if America does not make the change sooner rather than later.

There is hope for America. A future without democracy in America would mean that someone would come to call the shots and govern themselves. That does not sound like America to me. Instead, I think America should work harder at democracy and give everyone the opportunity to live in a community based on fairness, freedom, and equity. With enough time and effort America can reclaim her place as the greatest nation on earth. Perhaps you will join me?

What Does Freedom Mean to You?

In its most basic form, freedom means the power to choose or act without immediate limitation imposed by others. Something is free when it is not limited in its current state and is able to change rapidly and easily. In its most ideal form, freedom would mean that whatever you wish to do is the law. However, this is a very abstract concept; the idea of freedom actually has much more to do with personal values, institutions, and social orders.

One of the most important foundations of American freedom is the idea of individual rights. Americans cherish their freedom and have a strong commitment to individual freedom and privacy. Some of the most important ideas in creating a strong American ideal are the beliefs that: Everyone has the right to be respected and nobody should be helpless because of the actions of other individuals. It is the responsibility of each individual to protect themselves from intrusions into their private lives. Freedom helps to ensure that this right to protect self-respect and security in one’s life is never violated. All people are endowed with rights and it is up to each person to defend those rights, both ancient and modern.

The other important aspect of freedom is individual liberty. The basis of individual liberty is the right to choose one’s own path in life. Without the opportunity to pursue self-interest, Americans have developed an insatiable appetite for freedom of enterprise. With a thriving economy and an unmatched level of personal freedom, the American people enjoy an extraordinary degree of economic mobility. Without freedom of choice and the rule of law, prosperity would have little to no chance for upward mobility and the average American would have a relatively worse life than that of the European continent.

Because all Americans have different beliefs and freedoms, the country has adapted unique social structures based on the founding principles of freedom and independence. These values are the cornerstones of American law and way of life. Individual freedom and communal freedom form the bedrock on which modern America stands today. While all Americans share these core freedoms, there are many differences regarding individual rights, the role of government, and the protection of these freedoms.

Many Americans believe strongly that these freedoms are necessary to ensure the strength of the nation and the freedoms that allow them to lead successful lives. The freedoms protected by the constitution are anchored in the ideas that are the pillars of American exceptionalism. Many of the fundamental laws of the United States were born out of the necessity of protecting these cherished freedoms.

As Americans celebrate their rich history of freedom and fight for the freedom of others, they can look to the past to learn about the sacrifices that they made for the freedoms that they cherish. Many of these freedoms have been won for Americans through the blood, sweat and tears of many generations. It is up to us, as a nation, to continue the fight for freedom. In doing so, we will find a greater treasure – a stronger nation.