Among the COVID-19 countries, Indonesia is an important bellwether for the evolution of democracy. It has faced many of the same challenges that large democracies like Brazil, India, and the United States have. Nonetheless, the country’s performance in recent elections raises serious questions about its capacity to respond to societal demands and maintain a strong democratic system. What can be done to make democracy in Indonesia more responsive to its citizens?
The MPR, or the Legislative Assembly, is the legislative branch of Indonesia’s government. It is responsible for interpreting the constitution and defining broad lines of state policy. Until 2004, it was a unicameral body, but after the 2004 elections, the MPR became bicameral. It is composed of two houses, the lower house DPR and the upper house DPD. Four-fifths of DPR seats are reserved for members of the lower house. DPR members are elected through a proportional system based on provincial population. Voters can cast a ballot for a single candidate or for a particular party.
Until the June 1999 general election, Indonesia had a system of guided democracy, or “guided democracy.” Sukarno, Indonesia’s third president, wanted to bring political stability to the country. He believed Western-style democracy was inappropriate for the country and sought a system based on the traditional village system of discussion and consensus between village elders. However, the Guided Democracy system was soon replaced by a more liberal version of guided democracy.
While the transition from the Suharto era to a new political order has produced some positive changes, many challenges remain. The current system of governance is still far from perfect, and the government will need to take action to prevent further problems. The National Human Rights Commission is an important institution, but the Indonesian people aren’t ready to give up its governing authority. This is one of the primary challenges for democratic reform in Indonesia.
The growing polarization of Indonesia’s political system has been a source of concern for many citizens, particularly in the country’s north. The country’s parliament is a major source of conflict, and many people are wary of a new Indonesian president. A polarizing situation may lead to further instability in the country. But, the political situation in Indonesia is becoming more stable. The first step to a new government is ensuring that the opposition has no influence on its policies and elections.
While Indonesia has shown significant improvements in terms of its democratic system, it continues to suffer from many weaknesses. The country’s political system is subject to political corruption. There are few effective safeguards for the protection of the rights of citizens. As a result, the legal system is ineffective. In addition, judicial independence is often limited. In some cases, a court’s decision is influenced by religious considerations.